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IVF with sperm donation is an assisted reproduction technique used when the male partner faces severe abnormalities in semen or the reproductive system, which may be congenital or acquired. Situations like azoospermia (absence of sperm) due to blockages or testicular failure, severe oligozoospermia (decreased sperm count), seminal fluid abnormalities, or ejaculatory dysfunction are indications for sperm donation. Additionally, when male partners have significant genetic defects that could be passed to children, or in cases where there’s no male partner such as with single women or lesbian couples seeking pregnancy, sperm donation becomes a vital part of the IVF process.

The procedure involves several steps:

  • Preparation Phase: A fertility specialist reviews test results and health reports to create a personalized treatment protocol.
  • Sperm Donor Selection: Donors undergo health screenings and genetic tests; their information is available on sperm bank websites.
  • Ovarian Stimulation: Medication protocols are prepared based on health reports. Vaginal ultrasounds monitor ovarian development, adjusting medication doses if needed. Egg retrieval is ideally done about 36 hours after a trigger shot.
  • Egg Retrieval (Oocyte Pick-Up): A 15-20 minute sedated procedure collects eggs using ultrasound-guided aspiration.
  • Fertilization: Collected eggs are fertilized with selected donor sperm through microinjection (ICSI) under laboratory conditions.
  • Embryo Development Monitoring: Embryos are cultured for five days, monitored for growth until they reach the blastocyst stage. Quality depends on sperm and egg quality, and the best embryos are chosen for further development.
  • Embryo Transfer: The highest quality embryos are transferred into the uterus based on age, health, prior IVF attempts, and embryo quality.
  • Pregnancy Test: A blood test is conducted 12 days after embryo transfer to confirm pregnancy.
  • Cryopreservation of Embryos: Any remaining embryos after transfer are frozen for potential future use.
IVF with sperm donation provides a viable solution for couples facing male infertility issues or those seeking parenthood without a male partner, ensuring a pathway to achieve pregnancy and parenthood through assisted reproductive techniques.